Neutralizing Antibody Mechanism

Neutralizing Antibodies (NAbs) refer to a specific category of antibodies with the ability to attach themselves to unbound viruses, effectively inhibiting their capacity to infect cells. At Creative Biolabs, we are dedicated to providing professional, comprehensive, and personalized NAbs services and related support to our clients worldwide.

Neutralizing Antibody Mechanism

Upon entering the human body, a pathogen engages in intricate molecular interactions with host cells, resulting in host infection and self-replication. Traditionally, NAbs hinder specific early steps of virus replication by blocking the fragment antigen-binding (Fab) region. The neutralization mechanism of NAbs operates through one of the following four pathways:

  • NAbs attach to viral protein epitopes responsible for binding to host cell co-receptors, effectively disrupting viral infection.
  • iNAbs bind to viral surface proteins, preventing their interaction with host cell receptors.
  • NAbs attach to viral protein epitopes involved in conformational changes during membrane fusion, thereby impeding critical conformational alterations in the virus.
  • NAbs bind to distant epitopes of fusion proteins, hindering complete fusion. This mechanism can target either exposed envelope or viral particles.

Interaction of COVID-19 virus and NAbs.Fig 1. Interaction of COVID-19 virus and NAbs. (Morales, 2021)

Mechanisms of Viral Escape

Viruses employ diverse tactics to evade neutralizing antibodies. Through generating periodic genomic mutations and selecting mutations that allow the virus to evade NAbs, the virus becomes unrecognizable to antibodies. Additionally, the virus utilizes specific mechanisms to obstruct antibody entry into its core region, increasing the challenge of binding. The reduction in surface structural protein density and extensive glycosylation to form a polysaccharide shield can effectively reduce the affinity of NAbs binding.

Our experienced team of developers and scientists always stays at the forefront of the bioscience and antibody fields. Here, we provide you with more NAbs-related knowledge that you may find interesting, aiming to support your research work.

Our Services

In addition to providing continuous and professional technical support, we offer customizable services to meet your specific needs through our recombinant antibody production platform. Whether you require antibodies for research purposes, diagnostic analysis, or therapeutic applications, we have the expertise and capability to provide reliable and effective solutions. You are welcome to visit our Antibody Products library for comprehensive product information.

Please feel free to contact us for any requirements.


  1. Morales, J.J.; et al. Overview of Neutralizing Antibodies and Their Potential in COVID-19. Vaccines. 2021, 9: 1376.
For research use only, not directly for clinical use.
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