Recombinant Antibody

Recombinant antibodies offer a powerful tool for researchers and clinicians alike, providing a versatile and customizable approach to studying and treating disease. Creative Biolabs develops high-quality recombinant antibodies and offers cutting-edge services in recombinant antibody expression and customized recombinant antibodies.

Introduction Types AdvantagesApplications Production Service

Introduction of Recombinant Antibodies

A recombinant antibody is a type of antibody that is generated using genetic engineering techniques rather than being derived from an animal or human. These techniques involve introducing genes encoding for the antibody into cells, which then produce the antibody in large quantities. They consist mainly of the variable region of both the heavy and the light chains of immunoglobulin. Recombinant antibodies are designed to have specific properties, such as increased affinity for their target or improved stability, and can be engineered to meet specific research or therapeutic needs.

Types of Recombinant Antibodies

Immunoglobulin G (IgG)

IgGs consist of two distinct polypeptide chains, a light chain (L) and a heavy chain (H) according to their molecular weights. Each chain contains one variable region (VH, VL). The light chain contains one constant region (CL), whereas the heavy chain has three constant regions (CH1-3).

Fig.1 Structures of an IgGFig.1 Structures of an IgG.1

Single chain variable fragment (scFv)

The scFv is the smallest of the recombinant antibody types, consisting of variable (binding) portions of the antibody heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains, with a flexible linker connecting the terminal ends of either the VH to VL (or VL to VH). It is common and effective to employ a disease-specific scFv for targeted therapy by fusing it into therapeutic proteins or genes.

Fig.2 Structures of a scFvFig.2 Structures of a scFv.2

Fab fragment

The Fab fragment is composed of one variable and one constant domain of both light and heavy chains, which are connected by a disulfide bridge. Several drugs that have been generated from Fabs have now been approved by the FDA. Fab fragment antibodies can also be used to detect unbound or free medicines in serum.

Fig.3 Structures of a Fab fragmentFig.3 Structures of a Fab fragment.2

Bispecific recombinant antibody

Bispecific antibodies combine two distinct antigen binding specificities inside a single molecule. Bispecific antibodies may combine target molecules with two distinct cells, resulting in direct cytotoxicity.

Fig.4 Diagram of a bispecific recombinant antibodies structureFig.4 Diagram of a bispecific recombinant antibodies structure.3

Differences Between Recombinant and Traditional Antibody

Recombinant Antibody Traditional Antibody
Production Method They are generated using genetic engineering techniques, where the genes encoding for the antibody are introduced into cells to produce the desired antibody. They are typically derived from animals (such as mice or rabbits) or humans, and are obtained through immunization and subsequent isolation from serum.
Customization They can be engineered to have specific properties, such as increased affinity for their target or improved stability, to meet research or therapeutic needs. They generally lack the level of customization possible with recombinant antibodies though to some degree of variability due to natural immune responses.
Specificity and Immunogenicity They maintain a high level of specificity and low immunogenicity over time. They may lose their capability to produce the targeted antibody over time or undergo undesirable changes that influence its functionality.
Consistency and Reproducibility They offer greater consistency in terms of production and quality. They have low reproducibility.
Scale of Production They can be produced in large quantities using cell culture systems, allowing for greater scalability. Traditional antibody production methods are often limited by the availability of suitable animal donors.

Applications of Recombinant Antibody

Biomedical research

Recombinant antibodies can be used as research tools to study the roles of specific intercellular and extracellular proteins, protein-protein interactions, protein expression and localization, and protein structure and to identify new drug targets, develop drugs.


Recombinant antibodies may treat infectious infections, autoimmune illnesses, and cancer. They can be engineered to target specific antigens on cancer cells or viruses, and can also be used as immunomodulators to regulate the immune system.


Recombinant antibodies can be applied to preclinical assessment of patient responses to immunotherapy, such as immune-positron emission tomography (immunoPET), which involves conjugating antibodies against immunological checkpoint proteins with a radiotracer and imaging the patient in vivo.


Recombinant antibodies can be used in biodefense to detect and neutralize biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

Diagnostic tools

Recombinant antibodies can be used for diagnostic purposes in assays such as ELISA, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, lateral flow test, and other immunoassays to detect disease biomarkers or to measure drug levels in patients.

Fig.5 ScFv5 was used in a Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) testFig.5 ScFv5 was used in a Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) test.4

Production of Recombinant Antibody

Recombinant antibody production follows a largely comparable methodology. The method comprises extracting antibody sequences using source cells, amplifying, and cloning the gene sequences into the necessary phage vector, inserting the vector within a host (bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cell lines), and attaining effective antibody expression.

Recombinant Antibody provided by Creative Biolabs

Creative Biolabs possesses a mature recombinant antibody production platform that offers a one-stop shop for services ranging from the synthesis of genes to the high-quality production of recombinant antibodies. With experts' rich expertise and years of research experience, Creative Biolabs provides high-quality recombinant antibodies with good affinity and stability, as well as low endotoxin.

For more information, please feel free to contact us.


  1. Frenzel, André et al. "Expression of recombinant antibodies." Frontiers in immunology vol. 4 217. 29 Jul. 2013.
  2. Ma, Hui, and Richard O'Kennedy. "The Structure of Natural and Recombinant Antibodies." Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) vol. 1348 (2015): 7-11.
  3. Xing, Jieyu et al. "BiHC, a T-Cell-Engaging Bispecific Recombinant Antibody, Has Potent Cytotoxic Activity Against Her2 Tumor Cells." Translational oncology vol. 10,5 (2017): 780-785.
  4. Ghosh, Eshan et al. "A synthetic intrabody-based selective and generic inhibitor of GPCR endocytosis." Nature nanotechnology vol. 12,12 (2017): 1190-1198.
For research use only, not directly for clinical use.
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